Apex is a highly robust Object-Oriented Programming language by Salesforce and is used to empower Salesforce platforms. Apex not only allows executing the flow and managing transaction control statements on salesforce servers but even aids in API integration.  

Apex is basically used by developers who need logic in system events. It might be button clicks or a syntax that is easily understandable to resources who have skills in Java. Besides, the programming interface on Apex allows developers to use data present on salesforce.com.  

From permitting access to backend database and client-server interface to developers, Apex could even allow testers to have well-defined SaaS applications. Also, the applications developed on Apex are hosted on salesforce servers and do not need any installation on the user’s system. 

Why Is Apex Testing Needed? 

Similar to other software development processes and languages, apex testing is essential to meet the defined objectives related to functionality and outcomes. Also, testing allows the development of software that is made to drive the expected output while delivering software that is made to build customer loyalty by meeting credibility benchmarks.  

However, testing of Apex solutions could be done in two ways. Either it can be fostered through user interface testing or by working on bulk functionality. It is necessary that your apex testing initiatives must involve rapid testing for every new functionality and feature added to the system. Also, the testers need to ensure that no regressions must be generated when done with upgradation. 

Nevertheless, there are a few important things that testers need to keep in mind when trying to aim for deploying the code on the salesforce server: 

  • The unit testing should cover around 75 per cent of Apex code, and the defined test must be successfully executed.  

  • The tests performed should cover all the triggers. 

  • Every class and trigger defined in the Apex code must be checked for successful compilation. 

On top of that, there are undoubtedly important aspects of Apex testing that testers need to understand beforehand: 

  • Every unit test you deploy within your organization’s namespace must execute by default. 

  • The test methods and classes are not considered as a part of Apex code. 

  • The testers should ensure that all the application use cases are covered when unit testing is done, as it helps drive efficiency in 75 per cent of Apex code.  

  • Salesforce uses Apex Hammer to run all Apex tests before any upgrades are made on behalf of the developer. It is usually done on purpose by the system to ensure that the end results are not altered due to upgrades. Moreover, Apex Hammer even helps testers to fix identify issues and perfect them immediately before an upgrade is released. 

What Must Be Tested In Apex Testing? 

Some of the most crucial factors that you need to aim when testing apex code includes: 

  • Unit Testing 

The testers need to verify every record for generating the expected output by implementing unit tests on goal-specific actions.  

  • Bulk Functionality Checks 

The next important parameter that you need to aim for when Apex testing is bulk functionality on code. It usually includes class, extensions, or triggers.  

  • Positive Behavior Test 

Positive behaviour tests are done to ensure that Apex code delivers the desired output successfully based on the expected input. During the test, the limited input values are defined, and the code is then tested for known values to confirm the expected behaviour.  

  • Negative Behavior Test 

When we talk about application behaviour, there are certain input limitations associated with it. The negative behaviour test aims to check on input values that do not fall within the limit. It helps testers to check the error messages that the product under test would return in such cases.  

  • Restricted Test 

The next step needs you to test the code under a restricted environment. The process usually involves checking the system performance when limited access to the application resources is shared with a user working on the application. These are mostly restrictions related to objects or methods. 

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Apex Testing Process

The apex testing process feels very alike to other testing techniques used on web-based applications. It demands the right knowledge of the system under test and needs to keep a check on the core functionalities of the application. The process, therefore, involves using different techniques and not just sticking to the salesforce features.  

Since the Apex code could only be written in a sandbox environment, deploying it in a production environment helps simplify the entire test process. In other words, all the tests in apex testing are performed in the production. 

Unit Testing in Apex 

Unit testing is executed with the objective to find that every unit of code should meet the expectations with great efficiency. The best part of working on the Apex testing framework is the ease that it provides to the testers on creating and executing tests on all classes and triggers included. The process ultimately helps to yield rich code quality and meet the given specifications.  

Why Is It A Good Idea To Foster Apex Unit Testing? 

  • Since it works on executing 75 per cent of code, it allows efficient code testing. 

  • It is easier to create quality applications with unit testing involved as it allows giving more attention to detail on customer expectations. 

  • Unit testing helps verify all the classes and triggers 

  • Testers find it more convenient to meet the code coverage requirements through rapid deployment. 

  • Apex unit testing allows testers to develop separate test classes for varying test cases.  

Test Classes: The Definition 

Apex unit testing is performed with the help of test classes that are either code units or sections that work on checking the correctness and efficiency of every team during the functional stage.  

Process To Create Test Classes 

  • Create Data 

The first step to define test classes begins by allowing the test class to have access to the organization data as it does not pick information by default. This usually works by setting commands like @isTest(seeAllData= True), it will bring you access to the organization data. 

  • Use @is Test 

The annotation @is Test is used to specify that the test class should not consider the organizational code limit.  

  • ‘TestMethod’ Keyword Methods 

The test methods in Apex unit testing do not follow any arguments or commit to the database. Also, it does not send emails that are declared with the TestMethod keyword. Another way to declare test method keyword works by using isTest annotation.  

  • Start/Stop Tests 

Test.startTest() and Test.stopTest() commands can be used to control the test classes. These commands are actually the classes that contain the action to invoke or stop an event.  

  • .assert() 

The technique helps testers to compare the actual output with the expected output.  

Challenges of Apex Testing 

Developing Apex applications is no less than a task, and the idea of testing apex code is even more complex. Therefore, testers working on Apex testing often have to struggle on their way to perform apex testing. Some of these challenges include: 

  • Though apex programming applications are meant to complement salesforce operations or server cloud consoles, testing an apex code is a complicated job.  

  • If working on a lightning framework user interface, testers have to work on recreating classic tests.  

  • Since apex code can be tested only by fostering bulk functionality or GUI tests, the scope for GUI tests becomes zero when the code is shifted to a test environment. 

  • The apex code test cannot be done by removing standard functionalities, no matter they are part of the end product or not.  

  • Apex testing needs automated tests to work in all test environments.  

  • Creating field locators for salesforce is tough as every organization have their own set of defined field IDs. 

Apex Testing Best Practices 

  • Apex testing must always be conducted by using real profiles as it makes it easy to identify faults that might bother end-users.  

  • The test data should only be prepared to verify the reporting functionality of the system.  

  • The apex code should be tested using practices like Function tests, GUI tests, Integration tests, regression tests, system tests, and unit tests.  

  • Make sure you work on visual force pages having a dynamic nature allowing all elements to asynchronously load. 

  • Some test parts may need the use of automation testing that can be worked using tools like selenium and HP unified functional tests. 

  • Make sure you identify input limitations to foster positive and negative testing.  

  • Each condition and possibility must be tested for code, including conditions or ternary operations. This may help testers to enjoy efficient output deliveries.  

  • Though the apex code is error-free, it should not generate any exceptions.  

  • System .asset method must always be used to compare the expected and actual output.  

  • The bulk functionality test should be done by using at least 20 records in the test.  

  • The test data for targeted test classes must be created accurately.  

  • All classes in Apex code must be tested individually. Testing all the aspects of the application in a single test makes it difficult to identify errors.  

Good Luck! 

Apex testing may appear easy, but when you need to meet the highest efficiency goals, testers often have to struggle to work on test cases, classes, triggers, and all the unfamiliar aspects of the apex applications.  

And if you are aiming to yield the highest quality outcomes with your apex testing initiatives, feel free to reach our experts at BugRaptors.  

Contact us through info@bugraptors.com  

Also Read: Testing Strategies for Successful Salesforce Implementation



Ashish Sethi

Ashish is an experienced Functional Tester Lead with a demonstrated history of 8 years in the software testing industry. With a keen eye for detail and a passion for ensuring product quality, he specializes in Manual Testing, Database Testing, As a seasoned leader, he excels in mentoring and guiding junior testers, fostering a collaborative testing environment, and driving continuous improvement initiatives to enhance testing processes and methodologies. With a commitment to delivering high-quality software solutions, he is dedicated to exceeding client expectations and contributing to the success of every project he undertakes.


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